What Blood Contains

Blood consists of a suspension of cells in a special fluid called plasma. In a grown man, is the blood of body weight 1/12vo corresponding to 5.6 liters. Blood consists of 55% plasma and 45% formed by cells called elements.Blood performs many important functions. At the hemoglobin in red blood cells that carry oxygen to tissues and accumulates carbon dioxide (CO2). It also transports nutrients (amino acids, sugars, minerals), and collect the separated material is excreted by the kidneys filter. Blood also transports hormones, enzymes and vitamins. He keeps the defense of the body by phagocytic activity of leukocytes, the bactericidal effect of serum and immune cells are the main characters.

serum or cell-free plasma can be obtained by centrifugation. The liquid plasma is slightly alkaline, with a distinct yellow color. It consists of 90% water and 10% solids. Nine Parts of it are made of organic substances, while some are composed of minerals. These organic substances are composed of carbohydrates (glucose), lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, lecithin, fats), proteins (immunoglobulins, albumin, fibrinogen), glycoproteins, hormones (gonadotropin, erythropoietin, thrombopoietin), amino acids and vitamins. Minerals dissolved in ionic form, which dissociates into positive and negative ions.

In certain blood cells are present, which are classified as erythrocytes and leukocytes. Platelets are not considered true cells. Then we will discuss the different types of blood cells.

Erythrocytes (RBC)
Red blood cells (corpuscles) contain hemoglobin (a substance that is able to bind to oxygen). Oxygen from the lungs is transported by red blood cells to all tissues in the body. A person who has anemia, a condition caused by too few red blood cells in the blood may show a weakness, fatigue and lack of red blood cells are breath.The blood cells are most likely to know about 4-6 million / mm3. They are also called red cells.

In the hall of red blood cells in mammals, does the absence of the base more hemoglobin and biconcave shape of these cells increases the surface area and cytoplasmic volume ratio. These properties make it more efficient diffusion of oxygen by these cells.. In the so-called "sickle cell anemia, red blood cells usually sickle-shaped electron microscopy, the biologists have seen the red blood cells can have different forms: normal (discocyte), berries (teeth), strawberries (echinocytes), white (codocyte), anemia, oat hulls, is tight, sharp, bleeding, poikilocytes, etc. The half-life of erythrocytes is about 120 days. When you reach the end of their lives, they are retained by the spleen, where they are phagocytosed by macrophages.

Leukocytes (white blood cells)
leukocytes, or white, is responsible for defending the body. In the blood, which is much smaller than many red blood cells. The density of leukocytes in the blood is 5000-7000 / mm3. The leukocytes are divided into two categories: granulocytes and lymphoid cells or agranulocytes. The ANC is due to the presence of granules in the cytoplasm. In various types of granulocytes, the granules are different and help us to distinguish. In fact, these granules have a different affinity for acidic or basic neutral spots and give the cytoplasm in different colors. Thus, neutrophils are separated, eosinophils (or acidophilus) and basophils. Lymphoid cells, but differ in lymphocytes and monocytes. As we shall see, helps even the shape of the kernel's in recognition of leukocytes.

There are five types of white cells in the body, including the following:


These cells fight viruses, bacteria, and others and participate in hypersensitivity reactions seen in allergic reactions.

Neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils are (white blood cells that destroy bacteria). Granulocytes are characterized by small particles or granules, found in every cell, and contains substances that fight infections. Granulocytes undergo several developmental stages before becoming mature neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils o. The most immature myeloid series of cells called granulocytes are myeloblasts, promyelocytes, myelocytes, metamyelocytes, band forms (cells with a dagger), and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN).

Neutrophils are very active in the trailer and bacteria are present in large numbers in the pus of wounds. Unfortunately, these cells are not able to renew their lysosomes used in digesting microbes and killed after consuming any of them.

Eosinophils attack parasites and phagocyte antigen-antibody complex.

Basophils differ anticoagulant and vasodilator substances such as histamine and serotonin. Although they have a phagocytic capacity, its main function is to secrete substances that are involved in the hypersensitivity reaction.

Lymphocytes are cells which, in addition to being present in the blood, fill the lymphoid tissues and organs, and lymph flow through lymphatic vessels. lymphoid organs are the heart of the thymus, bone (in birds storage), spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, Peyer's patches and lymphoid tissues of the respiratory tract and stomach.

Most lymphocytes circulating in the blood is in a state of rest. They look like small round cells with a compact core that takes up almost the entire volume of the cell. Consequently, the cytoplasm is very low. Lymphocytes in lymphoid tissues and organs can be activated by a different amount of antigen stimulation. In blood, lymphocytes are 20-40% of all leukocytes soft and larger than red blood cells.

Lymphocytes are the main components of the immune system is a defense against attack by pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and protists. performance and cell antibodies in their membranes. An antibody is a molecule that can bind to a form of complementary molecules, called antigens, and recognition. Like all proteins, although antibodies are encoded by genes. On the basis of a mechanism for the recombination of some of these genes, each cell produces antibodies specifically.

Therefore, cells that perform a specific action called each additional recognize antigen only. Although all cells are highly selective recognition of a molecule, the number of circulating lymphocytes so large that they are able to detect almost all substances in the body, both domestic and foreign. It's about recognizing hundreds of millions of different molecules.

immune cells, mainly lymphocytes, cooperate to activate, stimulate and make more precise the immune system. To reach this area, there are different types of cells with different functions: T-cells and B when B cells are activated, they reproduce rapidly (clonal selection) and become plasma cells that secrete large amounts of antibodies in the blood (humoral response). When antibodies without complying with further micro-organisms (epitopes), join them and form complexes immobilized microorganisms. Later, other cells that are not specific, but can recognize the antibodies, phagocytes these complexes.

In turn, T cells are divided into three categories: Tc (cytotoxic), Th (helper), Ts (suppressor). Although cytotoxic lymphocytes reproduce quickly when it is activated. They do not release antibodies in the blood, but to maintain the antibodies in their membranes and cells use to detect, especially its own body cells infected with viruses or tumor. Cytotoxic lymphocytes kill cells by substances perforin, which produces lesions in the membrane of the target cell and cause death by osmotic lysis (cell response). Lymphocytes of the aid is necessary to activate B cells and Tc which, although they recognize foreign agents, rarely direct action. Suppressor lymphocytes reduce the severity of the immune response.

But does not the immune system attacks the body's cells that autoimmune reaction can damage the body and cause death. How does the immune system between itself and not me? We have seen that B cells and Tc recognize an antigen, do not do anything, but must be activated by an additional cell. A couple of times after the birth of the organization, some of the new cells pass through the thymus where T-cells are cells then were compared with all antigens of the organism (auto-anti-gens). It appears that lymphocytes that recognize an antigen, as they are still immature, he will die. Thus, the autoreactive Th cells are dead, only B cells and Tc have recognized foreign antigens can be activated. The system of cellular cytotoxicity mediated by Th cells is developed as a defense against the infected cells, altered, or deviant. Indeed, B cells and Tc turned against bacteria, even without the consent of the participants.

The B and Tc lymphocytes activated in addition to the production of antibodies and kill foreign cells, multiply rapidly. During cell division, rearrangements often occur in the sequence of genes coding for antibodies. Thus, the antibody in the new cell a little bit different compared to his father mitotic. If the new form is better suited to the antigen, this cell will be persuaded to share more. The next generation of clones is more efficient and, in turn, can lead to more selective variants. This process of clonal selection and more effective immune response. Finally, immune memory cells, ie lymphocytes off ready to be reactivated on the occasion of the meeting with the same antigen.

In addition to Th cells and B, a third population of lymphocytes in the blood and peripheral lymphoid organs have receptors for antigens. These cells have a non-specific defense function is not activated by Th cells, these cells are the oldest part of the immune system and is characterized by cytotoxic activity. For these reasons, called NK, natural killer. In addition to killing viruses, bacteria, infections and neoplastic cells, these cells also regulates the production of other blood cells, red blood cells and granulocytes.

Monocytes are precursors to macrophages. Blood pieces are larger, which, after reaching maturity in the bone marrow into the bloodstream, where they remain in 24-36 hours. Then migrate into the tissues where they become macrophages and move into tissues. In the presence of an area of inflammation, monocytes migrate rapidly from the blood vessels and begin an intense phagocytic activity. The role of these cells is not only in phagocytosis, and also an intense activity of secretion. They produce substances that have defensive functions, such as lysozyme, interferon and other substances that modulate the function of other cells. Macrophages cooperate in the immune system. They expose the body to digest the molecules in the membrane, and present them to more specialized cells such as B and Th lymphocytes.

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The Red Blood Cells - Marvelous Aspect Of Creation

The most common cell in your bloodstream gives blood its red color and is thus called a red blood cell. Just one drop of your blood contains hundreds of millions of such cells. When viewed through a microscope, they look like doughnuts with a depressed center instead of a hole. Each cell is packed with hundreds of millions of hemoglobin molecules. Each hemoglobin is, in turn, a beautiful spherical structure made up of about 10,000 hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms, plus four heavier atoms of iron, which gives blood its oxygen- carrying ability. Hemoglobin facilitates the transport of carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs, where it is exhaled.

Another vital part of your red blood cells is their skin, called membrane. This marvelous covering enables the cells to stretch into thin shapes so as to pass through your thinnest blood vessels and thus sustain every part of your body.

Manufacturing of the red blood cell is done in the bone marrow. Once a new one is created, it enters your blood stream; it may circulate through your heart and body more than 100,000 times. Unlike the other cells, the red blood cells have no nucleus. This gives them more space to carry oxygen and makes it lighter, which helps your heart to pump millions of red blood cells throughout your body. However, lack of a nucleus results to inability to renew their internal parts. Thus, after 120 days, your red blood cell begins to deteriorate and lose their elasticity.

The large white blood cell called phagocytes consumes these worn-out cells and spit out the iron atoms. The scarce iron atoms attach themselves to transport molecules that take them to your bone marrow to be used in the manufacture of new red cells. Every second, your bone marrow releases two to three million new red blood cells into your bloodstream!

If your trillions of red blood cells were suddenly to stop functioning, that entails death within minutes. No doubt, you will agree with me, the essence of this marvelous creation.

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Top 10 Symptoms of Kidney Failure

Kidney failure is an End-Stage renal disorder that is characterized by complete cessation of kidney function. This is the most dreaded ending of a long battle with kidney problems.

Once the condition reaches this stage, there is no turning back to the normal function of the kidney, instead the person should now rely on dialysis to clean the blood and rid the body of toxic wastes of metabolism.

Another option is to subject the body to kidney transplant, which is not only very expensive and critical as the body could reject the new kidney bringing more complications; it is also very hard to find a suitable and compatible donor.

For people suffering from chronic kidney diseases, as well as other kidney disorders, these are the symptoms to look out for since these symptoms are tell tale signs that the end of the kidney is near:

1. Oedema - characterized by bloating of the feet or legs at first and eventually will be distributed all throughout the body. This is primarily due to increased water retention by the kidney instead of letting the water out of the body.

2. Anemia - one of the major functions of the kidney is the regulation on production of red blood cells, as the kidneys deteriorate, red cells production also decreases, hence the person will become severely anemic (low red blood cell count).

3. Hematuria - characterized by the presence of blood clots in the urine.

4. Bloody Stools - blood may be seen with the stool and is a very good indication of the severity of kidney damage.

5. Sudden behavior change - people suffering from renal failure is more prone to mood swings, hallucinations, delusions, and increased state of confusion.

6. Severe flank pain - a very painful feeling in one flank of the body, and have the tendency to move to the lower abdomen, groin, labia, or the testicles.

7. Decrease in urination - decrease in the volume of urine is one thing, but in renal failure, the act of urination itself is diminished.

8. Shortness of breath - primarily brought about by extremely high blood pressure.

9. Seizure - severe conditions on the kidneys and its effect all throughout the body might trigger seizures and involuntary shaking of a part of the body, or the entire body as well.

10. Foul Smelling Urine - acrid and too sweet smelling urine is an indication of renal failure although it could also be observed in chronic renal diseases.

When any of these kidney stone disease symptoms show up, it is wise to call medical help right away, as not doing so will endanger your life. One symptom might show up or several of them altogether, whichever the case, immediate medical help is a must. Or you can simply visit: http://kidneystonedisease.net for more information.

Symptoms of Leukemia: Spotting Them Before It's Too Late

Leukemia is a type of cancer that is very common nowadays. It does not choose who it attacks: men, women, children, adults, Caucasian, African-American, Asian, Hispanic - we are all at risk. According to the latest survey conducted, almost 44,000 people will be diagnosed with leukemia by 2010. It is now 2011. However, with developments that we have had in the aspect of health and medicine, the outcome of leukemia is looking bright. There is now a significant increase in the survival rate - a little over 50 per cent. That might not be a very big number for you, but compared to the 1970s when they only had a 14 per cent chance of survival, 50 per cent is almost like being disease-free. Won't you agree?

Surviving leukemia would largely depend on the severity of the disease by the time it gets diagnosed. As you could deduce, an earlier diagnosis of leukemia would give a better prognosis as compared to a late detection. Knowing which symptoms to look out for would be a great help in getting the earliest treatment possible. The following would be the most common symptoms of leukemia:

• Fever and recurrent infections. The reason behind this is that in leukemia, you do not have mature white blood cells to combat foreign bodies. You do not have a good defense system to protect you from invading viruses.

• Fatigue. Leukemia is a condition where there is a massive production of abnormal white blood cells. These cells would take up a lot of space, thus impeding the production of other types of cells. Since the production of red blood cells is decreased in the process, oxygen delivery to your various systems would also be decreased. This is what's causing fatigue.

• Bleeding and/or easy bruising. Bleeding, when associated with cancer, is painless. The same goes with bruising. A normal bruise would be tender when touched. Bruising, as related to leukemia, does not have any pain at all. Platelets, the ones responsible for clotting, are decreased in leukemia. This causes the bleeding and the bruising.

• Petechiae. They are tiny, rash-like spots found on the skin. Unlike rashes, though, petechiae are not itchy. This is caused by the rupture of capillaries and a decrease in platelet count.

• Pain. All types of cancer have pain. In the case of leukemia, it is bone or joint pain. This should not be confused with symptoms of bone cancer, though. The pain in bone cancer is caused by the compression of nerves due to tumor growth. In leukemia, the pain is caused by the overcrowding of blood cells in the bone marrow.

There are many other symptoms of leukemia, but the aforementioned would be the most common of the lot. If you experience any of those mentioned above, consult with your doctor immediately. If you get treatment early in the disease, there is a chance that the cancer cells might be eradicated and you would be one of the few survivors who would live to tell your story about battling with death.

For more information on Different Types of Diseases, Symptoms and Diagnoses, Please visit: Symptoms of Bone Cancer and Symptoms of Leukemia.

Different Classifications of Anemia

Approximately 1 out of 77 people in the united states of America suffer from Anemia. And as of 2004, an estimate of over 76 million people worldwide suffer from this ailment. What actually causes Anemia?

For an better overview of the causes, Anemia should be classified. The basic cause of anemia is either an increased loss or destruction of red blood cells or an impaired or decreased rate of production. An etiologic classification is based on the various conditions leading to either of these results.

Blood loss
Acute or chronic hemorrhage results in loss of plasma and all formed elements of the blood. After acute hemorrhage, the body replaces plasma within 1 to 3 days, maintaining blood volume. However, this results in a low concentration of rd blood cells, which are gradually replaced within 3 to 4 weeks. During this period there is usually a normocytic (normal size), normochromic (normal color) anemia, and there are sufficient iron sotries for hemoglobin synthesis.

In chronic blood loss, the actual number of red blood cells may be normal because of continual replacement. However, insufficient iron is available to form hemoglobin as quickly as it is lost. As a result, erythrocytes are usually small in size (microcytic and pale in color (hypochromic).

Excessive destruction
Excessive destruction or hemolysis of erythrocytes can occur from a variety of causes. One of the most common is a result of defect within the red blood cell (intracorpuscular) that shortens the life span of the cell so that production cannot keep pace with destruction. Sickle cell anemia and thalassemia, have decreased erythrocyte life spans because of a defect in hemoglobin synthesis.

Extra-corpular factors are those conditions that cause hemolysis in otherwise normal red blood cells. A classic example is erythroblastosis fetalis. Other causes can be toxic drugs, transfusion reactions, burns, poisonings (such as from lead), infections such as malaria, and splenic sequestration (hypersplenism).

Impaired or decreased production
Impaired or decreased production of red blood cells can occur as a result of either bone marrow failure or deficiency of essential nutrients. Bone marrow failure may be caused by
• Replacement of bone marrow by fibrosis or by neoplastic cells, such as in leukemia,
• Depression of marrow activity from irradiation, chemicals or drugs, or
• Interference with bone marrow activity from other systemic diseases, such as severe infection, chronic renal disease, widespread malignancy (without marrow infiltration), collage disease, or hypothyroidism.

The reason for various systemic disorders affecting erythrocyte production varies according to the condition. For example, in severe chronic infection there is evidence that depression of erythropoiesis is caused by a defect in the conversion of proteoporphyrin into hemoglobin. In addition, there is some degree of hemolysis, although the exact mechanism is not known.

The most common childhood anemia is a result of deficient iron supply, besides iron as an essential component of hemoglobin synthesis, red blood cell production is dependent on amino acids, vitamins B6, B9 and C, folic, copper and possibly cobalt. Chronic malnutrition results in anemia as a result of generalized protein. Mineral and vitamin deficiencies.

Pernicious anemia develops when the gastric mucosa fails to secrete sufficient amounts of intrinsic factor, which is essential for absorption of vitamin B12. This type of anemia is common in the elderly as a result of physiologically decreased gastric secretions. Deprived of vitamin B12, the bone marrow produces fewer but larger (macrocytic) red blood cells. The erythrocytes are usually immature and because of their extremely fragile cell membranes, are more rapidly destroyed during circulation.

Classification based on morphology
A second classification has been made that is based on the morphologic changes within the red blood cell. The major categories
1. normocytic
2. microcytic
3. macrocytic

In addition, each category may be subdivided according to the amount of hemoglobin in the cell, since hemoglobin gives the cell its characteristic red color, the usual classifications are
• normochromic
• microchromic

Classification based on Hb level
Stage I
• mild stage
• Hemoglobin level is 110-90g/l
• Erythrocyte count is 3.5-3.0x10^12/l

Stage II
• Moderate stage
• Hemoglobin level is 90-70g/l
• Erythrocyte count is 3.0-2.5x10^12/l

Stage III
• Severe stage
• Hemoglobin level is Laboratory criteria
Laboratory criteria of anemia in neonatal period are
• 0-14 days - Hemoglobin level is less than 145g/l
• 15-28days- Hemoglobin level is less than 120g/l

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Mosquitoes and Malaria

The bites of the common British species of mosquito (Culex pipiens) cause little more than irritation and swelling. In many tropical countries, the Middle East and Southern Asia, species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles transmit the disease malaria. It is estimated that about 280 million people suffer from malaria and over 2 million or more die each year.

The disease is caused by a single-celled parasite (Plasmodium spp.) which enters the blood stream as a result of a 'bite' from an infected mosquito. The parasites enter the red blood cells and reproduce there, feeding on the cytoplasm of the cell. The red cells eventually burst open and release the parasites into the blood stream, where they go on to infect other red cells. When hundreds of red cells burst simultaneously, they cause the patient to suffer from fever. The regular phases of reproduction and release produce regular bouts of fever.

If a mosquito sucks blood from an infected person, the parasites break out of the red cells and enter the mosquito's gut wall where they continue to reproduce. From here they migrate to the salivary glands. The next person to be bitten will receive saliva containing the parasite and will probably develop malaria. The parasites first enter the cells of the liver and reproduce there. When they break out, they go on to invade the red blood cells.

There are three lines of defence against the disease; destroying the malarial parasite in the blood, destroying the mosquitoes which transmit the disease and preventing people from being bitten.

There are drugs such as Chloroquine which destroy the parasites in the blood but not in the liver. The malarial parasite has, in many cases, developed resistance to these drugs and new drugs are constantly being sought.

Insecticides can be used to kill mosquitoes in dwellings but, here again, the mosquitoes have developed resistance to insecticides such as DDT. Other ways of reducing the mosquito population involve draining the swamps when they breed, increasing the flow of sluggish streams to carry away the eggs and larvae, spraying oil and insecticide to kill the larvae in the water, covering all stores of water and preventing water from accumulating in discarded tins, tyres etc.

To avoid being bitten by mosquitoes, screens can be placed over windows and doors and, since most bites occur at night, people can sleep under a tent of fine netting to keep mosquitoes out.

An intensive search for a vaccine has not been successful so far.

More information, and illustrations to accompany this article, can be found on biology-resources.com

D G Mackean is the author of GCSE Biology, IGCSE Biology, and many other Biology text books. He has a site of Biology Teaching Resources at http://www.biology-resources.com which includes a bank of experiments for teachers, sample PowerPoint presentations, and many biological drawings

Sickle Cell Anemia, Crisis and Care

What is Anemia?

Anemia is a Greek word which means without blood. As the meaning of anemia showing the actual situation. Anemia is a condition in which your blood has abnormally low number of red blood cells circulate in the body. Anemia is not a disease, in fact it is a condition that results from below-normal levels of hemoglobin in the red blood cells. Hemoglobin is the iron-containing pigment of the red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. Anemia also can occur if your red blood cells don't contain enough hemoglobin doctors sometimes describe someone with anemia as having a low blood count. A person who has anemia is called anemic person.

What is Sickle Cell Disease?

Sickle cell is belongs to the family of thalassemia, it is very common inherited blood disorder disease, it occurs almost exclusively among black Americans and black Africans. Sickle cell disease (STD) is a condition that affects your blood. It's sometimes called sickle cell anemia. The red cells in your blood, which are usually disc-shaped, can turn into crescent or sickle shape. This stops your blood carrying oxygen as well as it should be. And sickle cells can't travel in your bloodstream as easily as ordinary red blood cells.These abnormal red blood cells, carrying an abnormal hemoglobin known as hemoglobin S. A person who has sickle cell disease can get infections more easily because the damaged cells eventually clog the spleen. These sickle shaped cells did not last long and usually die after only about 10 to 20 days.

STD can be diagnose by a simple blood test called CBC, in which complete blood counts, with red blood cells, and protein with iron and hemoglobin measured. While A hemoglobin electrophoresis test measuring the different types of hemoglobin in the bloodstream.

Sickle Cell Crisis:

In sickle cell disease sometimes patient suffers with severe and constant pain attacks which can be affect any body parts specially hands,elbows, knee joints, chest, legs, lower or upper back and palms etc. The liver or spleen may become large than normal size which is unable to protect the body form different infections. These kind of pains are very severe and the patient usually cannot bear it. When the pain starts, immediately give over-the-counter painkiller, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen to the affected person and have him lots of fluids orally or by injection which helps to push the stuck cells to flow ahead in narrow blood vessels and the due to this the pain starting to subside.


As we know that there is no proper cure for this deadly disease while there may be some care instead of cure. STD patient need oxygen, plenty of fluids and iron containing foods to reduce the severity of the pain. In some cases they need blood transfusion if the condition is more serious.A drug called hydroxyurea(brand name Hydrea) may prevent regular attacks of sickle cell pain and give more gap between severe pain attacks. Medical experts are still trying hard to get proper treatment for STD.

Muhammed Anwar Fazil
Basic Level Expert Author